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Linux使用route命令显示和操作IP路由表

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route命令用于显示和操作IP路由表(show / manipulate the IP routing table)。要实现两个不同的子网之间的通信,需要一台连接两个网络的路由器,或者同时位于两个网络的网关来实现。在Linux系统中,设置路由通常是 为了解决以下问题:该Linux系统在一个局域网中,局域网中有一个网关,能够让机器访问Internet,那么就需要将这台机器的IP地址设置为 Linux机器的默认路由。要注意的是,直接在命令行下执行route命令来添加路由,不会永久保存,当网卡重启或者机器重启之后,该路由就失效了;可以 在/etc/rc.local中添加route命令来保证该路由设置永久有效。本文中的例子中会验证这一点。

常用参数

格式:route

格式:/sbin/route

用于打印路由表(display the current routing table)。

在非root用户使用时需要使用完整路径执行route命令。TP-Link 620G在Fedora上安装网卡驱动指南

格式:route -

格式:/sbin/route -

用于打印路由表,加上-n参数就是在输出的信息中不打印主机名而直接打印ip地址。像netstat命令也有此参数。

格式:route add default gw {IP-ADDRESS} {INTERFACE-NAME}

用于设置默认路由(adds a default route, which will be used if no other route matches),其中,

参数{IP-ADDRESS): 用于指定路由器(网关)的IP地址(Specify router IP address);

参数{INTERFACE-NAME}: 用于指定接口名称,如eth0(Specify interface name such as eth0)。使用/sbin/ifconfig -a可以显示所有接口信息。

man route 写道 route add default gw mango-gw

adds a default route (which will be used if no other route matches). All packets using this route will

e gatewayed through "mango-gw". The device which will actually be used for that route depends on how we

can reach "mango-gw" - the static route to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.

格式:route add -net {NETWORK-ADDRESS} netmask {NETMASK} dev {INTERFACE-NAME}

添加到指定网络的路由规则,其中

参数{NETWORK-ADDRESS}: 用于指定网络地址

参数{NETMASK}: 用于指定子网掩码

参数{INTERFACE-NAME}: 用于指定接口名称,如eth0。

man route 写道 route add -net 192.56.76.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0

adds a route to the network 192.56.76.x via "eth0". The Class C netmask modifier is not really necessary

here because 192.* is a Class C IP address. The word "dev" can be omitted here.

route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0 dev eth0

This is an obscure one documented so people know how to do it. This sets all of the class D (multicast)

IP routes to go via "eth0". This is the correct normal configuration line with a multicasting kernel.

格式:route add -net {NETWORK-ADDRESS} netmask {NETMASK} reject

设置到指定网络为不可达,避免在连接到这个网络的地址时程序过长时间的等待,直接就知道该网络不可达。

man route 写道 route add -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 reject

This installs a rejecting route for the private network "10.x.x.x."

格式:route del -net {NETWORK-ADDRESS} netmask {NETMASK} dev {INTERFACE-NAME}

格式:route del -net {NETWORK-ADDRESS} netmask {NETMASK} reject

用于删除路由设置。参数指定的方式与route add相似。

route命令输出的路由表字段含义如下:

Destination 目标

The destination network or destination host. 目标网络或目标主机。

Gateway 网关

The gateway address or '*' if none set. 网关地址,如果没有就显示星号。

Genmask 网络掩码

The netmask for the destination net; '255.255.255.255' for a

host destination and '0.0.0.0' for the default route.

Flags Possible flags include 标志,常用的是U和G。

U (route is up) 路由启用

H (target is a host) 目标是主机

G (use gateway) 使用网关

R (reinstate route for dynamic routing)

D (dynamically installed by daemon or redirect)

M (modified from routing daemon or redirect)

A (installed by addrconf)

C (cache entry)

! (reject route)

Metric 距离、跳数。暂无用。

The 'distance' to the target (usually counted in hops). It i

ot used by recent kernels, but may be needed by routing dae-

mons.

Ref 不用管,恒为0。

Number of references to this route. (Not used in the Linux ker-

el.)

Use 该路由被使用的次数,可以粗略估计通向指定网络地址的网络流量。

Count of lookups for the route. Depending on the use of -F and

-C this will be either route cache misses (-F) or hits (-C).

Iface 接口,即eth0,eth0等网络接口名

Interface to which packets for this route will be sent.

使用示例 示例一 打印当前路由表(root用户)

[root@jfht ~]# route

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface

211.103.28.0 * 255.255.255.224 U 0 0 0 eth0

192.168.1.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

169.254.0.0 * 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

default 211.103.28.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

[root@jfht ~]# /sbin/route

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface

211.103.28.0 * 255.255.255.224 U 0 0 0 eth0

192.168.1.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

169.254.0.0 * 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

default 211.103.28.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

[root@jfht ~]# route -

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface

211.103.28.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.224 U 0 0 0 eth0

192.168.1.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

0.0.0.0 211.103.28.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

[root@jfht ~]# /sbin/route -

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface

211.103.28.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.224 U 0 0 0 eth0

192.168.1.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

0.0.0.0 211.103.28.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

[root@jfht ~]#

示例二 打印当前路由表(非root用户)

[web@hnweb1 ~]$ route

-bash: route: command not found

[web@hnweb1 ~]$ /sbin/route

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface

10.66.10.0 * 255.255.255.128 U 0 0 0 eth0

192.130.12.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.255.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

10.0.0.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

10.66.0.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

134.161.0.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

10.20.0.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

169.254.0.0 * 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

172.224.0.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

default 10.66.10.22 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

[web@hnweb1 ~]$ route -

-bash: route: command not found

[web@hnweb1 ~]$ /sbin/route -

Kernel IP routing table

Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface

10.66.10.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.128 U 0 0 0 eth0

192.130.12.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.255.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

10.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

10.66.0.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

134.161.0.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

10.20.0.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

169.254.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth1

172.224.0.0 10.66.10.1 255.255.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

0.0.0.0 10.66.10.22 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0

[web@hnweb1 ~]$

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